Enzymes and its Evolution
Enzyme is a kind of catalytic protein produced in the body, functioning as a catalyst. The catalyst can accelerate the chemical reaction without the change of amount and chemistry after the chemical reaction. All enzymes are macromolecules made up of many amino acids with a molecular weight between 10,000 and 1,000,000. Natural enzyme molecules include simple enzymes and binding enzymes. The former molecular composition contains only protein, the latter contains non-protein components, as well as protein composition.
Some also contain metal ions. Non-protein components in enzymes are known as cofactors. The combination of cofactors and enzyme proteins is called holoenzyme. As for binding enzymes, only the holoenzyme can perform catalytic function. Enzyme with high catalytic ability can increase the rate of chemical reactions by 106 to 1012 times. An enzyme molecule can convert hundreds to millions of substrate molecules in a minute.
Feeling full after having two hamburgers, but feeling hungry in a few hours. Why? The starch, fat and protein in two burgers are catalyzed by enzymes into simple organic molecules that are absorbed by the intestinal wall. Enzymes involved in this chemical reaction are mainly amylases, lipases and proteases. Without the participation of these enzymes, hamburgers may still be hamburgers, nothing changes. This is the magical function of the enzyme.
Enzymes are highly specific. An enzyme can only catalyze a chemical reaction. So far, there are about 3,000 kinds of enzymes found in nature, and about 3,000 kinds of chemical reactions can be catalyzed. An enzyme can only control and regulate one chemical reaction. Indigestion, caused by the lack of pepsin, can be treated by a little medicinal pepsin.
Different functional properties of the enzyme in organisms decide different life habit. For instance, donkeys, horses, cattle, sheep are fed on grass; wolves, tigers, leopards are fed on meat. Different tissues and organs in the same organism also have functionally different enzymes. Digestive enzymes within the digestive tract are to help digestion and absorption of nutrients; enzymes in the liver can not only synthesize protein, glycogen and fat, but also get rid of the waste; A variety of glandular enzymes can synthesize a variety of hormones regulating metabolism, and even male and female sexual characteristics also depends on the enzyme.
Our esteemed journal EEG is looking forward for the upcoming issue (Volume 9: Issue 1) having journal impact factor of 1* and nearly 83 articles are cited in Google scholar site. We are glad for the upcoming year issue release as all the authors are invited to submit their recent scientific work through manuscripts in the mode of Research/Case Reports/Case Studies/Reviews/Short Review/ Short Communications/Commentaries/Short Commentaries/Letters to Editor/ Image articles etc., from different regions around the world.
Our Journal welcomes submissions of manuscripts on the topics covering Bioprocess, Enzyme Expression, Enzyme Kinetics, Protein Interaction, Protein Purification, Protein Engineering, Enzyme, Metabolic Engineering, etc. In the quality perspective, the journal is determined to maintain an exceptionally high standard in both facts and ethics. Accuracy and authenticity in the scientific reports of present journal are conserved above all nominal needs of the time.
A standard editorial manager system is utilized for manuscript submission, review, editorial processing and tracking which can be securely accessed by the authors, reviewers and editors for monitoring and tracking the article processing. Manuscripts can be uploaded online at Editorial Tracking System https://www.longdom.org/submissions/enzyme-engineering.html or as an email attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org
Enzyme Engineering: Open-Access